Amazon RDS (Relational Database Service) in AWS

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Dear Readers,

In this article,we will see brief explanation regarding to RDS(Relational Database Service).

What is AWS RDS?

Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS) is a web service that makes it easier to set up, operate, and scale a relational database in the cloud.

It provides cost-efficient, resizable capacity for an industry-standard relational database and manages common database administration tasks.

Amazon Relational Database Service provides industry-standard relational database.

AWS RDS provides high availability with a primary instance and a synchronous secondary instance that can failover to when problems occur.

AWS RDS database products

  • MySQL
  • MariaDB
  • PostgreSQL
  • Oracle
  • Microsoft SQL Server
  • Amazon Aurora DB

AWS RDS  Components

  • DB Instances
  • Security Groups
  • DB Option Group
  • Availability Zone
  • DB Parameter Group

AWS RDS Interface

  • Amazon RDS Console
  • Command Line Interface
  • Programmatic Interfaces

AWS RDS Concepts

  • DB Instance Identifier
  • Master User Account
  • DB Instance Class


  • Amazon RDS Multi-AZ deployments provide enhanced availability and durability for Database (DB) Instances.
  • When you provision a Multi-AZ DB Instance, Amazon RDS automatically creates a primary
  • DB Instance and synchronously replicates the data to a standby instance in a different Availability Zone (AZ).
  • Each AZ runs on its own physically distinct, independent infrastructure.
  • Amazon RDS performs an automatic failover to the standby, in case of failure.

AWS RDS Multi-AZ Benefits

  • Multi-AZ deployments utilize synchronous physical replication to keep data on the standby up-to-date with the primary.
  • Multi-AZ provide data redundancy, eliminate I/O freezes, and minimize latency spikes during system backups.
  • Unlike Single-AZ deployments, I/O activity is not suspended on your primary during backup for Multi-AZ deployments, because the backup is taken from the standby.
  • If an Availability Zone failure or DB Instance failure occurs, automatic failover takes to complete: typically under two minutes.
  • DB Instance failover is fully automatic and requires no administrative intervention.
  • Amazon RDS monitors the health of your primary and standbys, and initiates a
  • failover automatically in response to a variety of failure conditions.

AWS RDS Multi-AZ Failover Process

  • In the event of a planned or unplanned outage, RDS automatically switches to a standby replica.
  • Failover times are typically 60-120 seconds. However, large transactions or a lengthy recovery process can increase failover time.
  • RDS handles failovers automatically so you can resume database operations as quickly as possible without administrative intervention.
  • The failover mechanism automatically changes the DNS record of the DB instance to point to the
  • standby DB instance. As a result, you will need to re-establish any existing connections to your DB instance.
  • There are several ways to determine if your Multi-AZ DB instance has failed over:
  • DB event subscriptions can be setup to notify you via email or SMS that a failover has been initiated.
  • You can view the current state of your Multi-AZ deployment via the Amazon RDS console and APIs.

AWS RDS Read Replica

  • Amazon RDS uses the MySQL, MariaDB, and PostgreSQL DB engines’ built-in replication functionality to create a special type of DB instance called a Read Replica from a source DB instance.
  • You can reduce the load on your source DB instance by routing read queries from your applications to the Read Replica.
  • Using Read Replicas, you can elastically scale out beyond the capacity constraints of a single DB instance for read-heavy database workloads.
  • The Read Replica operates as a DB instance that allows only read-only connections.

AWS RDS Maintenance Window

  • Every DB instance has a weekly maintenance window during which any system changes are applied. It is initiated during the 30 mnts. maintenance window you identify.
  • Most maintenance complete during the 30 mnts. maintenance window, but it may take more than 30 mnts.
  • RDS assigns a 30-minute maintenance window on a randomly selected day of the week, if you don’t specify a preferred maintenance window.


US East (N. Virginia) Region [03:00–11:00 UTC]

Asia Pacific (Mumbai) Region [17:30–01:30 UTC]

AWS RDS Backup

  • Amazon RDS creates automated backups of your DB instance during the backup window of your DB instance.
  • Amazon RDS saves the automated backups of your DB instance according to the backup retention period.
  • Your DB instance must be in the ACTIVE state for automated backups to occur.
  • You can also backup your DB instance manually.
  • Your backup storage is equivalent to the sum of the database storage for all instances.
  • All automated backups are deleted when you delete a DB instance. But, manual snapshots are not deleted.
  • Automated backups occur daily during the preferred backup window. If the backup requires it continues after the window ends, until it finishes.

AWS RDS Restoration

  • You can create a DB instance by restoring the DB snapshot.
  • When you restore the DB instance, you provide the name of the DB snapshot to restore from and then provide a name for the new DB instance that is created from the restore.
  • You cannot restore from a DB snapshot to an existing DB instance; a new DB instance is created when you restore.
  • You can restore a DB instance and use a different storage type than the source DB snapshot.
  • But, MS SQL DB instance does not support changing the storage configuration when restoring from a DB snapshot

AWS RDS Copying Snapshot

  • With Amazon RDS, you can copy DB snapshots.
  • You can copy automated or manual snapshots.
  • After you copy a snapshot, the copy is a manual snapshot.
  • You can copy a snapshot within the same AWS Region or across AWS Regions, and you can copy a snapshot across AWS accounts.
  • If you want to keep an automated snapshot for a longer period, copy it to create a manual snapshot, which is retained until you delete it.

AWS RDS Working with DB Instance

  • Create DB Instance
  • Rename DB Instance
  • Deleting DB Instance
  • Reboot DB Instance
  • Stopping DB Instance

AWS RDS Parameter Groups

  • You manage your DB engine configuration through the use of parameters in a DB parameter group.
  • DB parameter groups act as a container for engine configuration values that are applied to one or more DB instances.


AUTOCOMMIT DB parameter of your MySQL RDS instance.

AWS RDS Limitations

Aurora Database

  • It is a part of Relational Database Engine High Performance and Cost-Effective MySQL and PostgreSQL compatible five  times better performance than MYSQL three  times better performance than PostgreSQL.
  • Amazon RDS manages Aurora DB which handles the time consuming tasks such as backup , recovery and fault detection.

Working of Aurora Database

  •  When you create an Amazon Aurora instance, you create a DB cluster.
  • A DB cluster consists of one or more DB instances, and a cluster volume that manages the data for those instances. An Aurora cluster volume is a virtual database storage volume that spans multiple Availability
  • Zones, with each Availability Zone having a copy of the DB cluster data.

Two types of DB instances make up an Aurora DB cluster:

Primary instance

  • Supports read and write operations, and performs all of the data modifications to the cluster volume. Each Aurora DB cluster has one primary instance.

Aurora Replica

  • Supports only read operations. Each Aurora DB cluster can have up to 15 Aurora Replicas in addition to the primary instance.
  • Multiple Aurora Replicas distribute the read workload, and by locating Aurora Replicas in separate Availability Zones you can also increase database availability.


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